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Phospho-dependent recruitment of the yeast NuA4 acetyltransferase complex by MRX at DNA breaks regulates RPA dynamics during resection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 10 02;115(40):10028-10033

Authors: Cheng X, Jobin-Robitaille O, Billon P, Buisson R, Niu H, Lacoste N, Abshiru N, Côté V, Thibault P, Kron SJ, Sung P, Brandl CJ, Masson JY, Côté J

The KAT5 (Tip60/Esa1) histone acetyltransferase is part of NuA4, a large multifunctional complex highly conserved from yeast to mammals that targets lysines on H4 and H2A (X/Z) tails for acetylation. It is essential for cell viability, being a key regulator of gene expression, cell proliferation, and stem cell renewal and an important factor for genome stability. The NuA4 complex is directly recruited near DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to facilitate repair, in part through local chromatin modification and interplay with 53BP1 during the DNA damage response. While NuA4 is detected early after appearance of the lesion, its precise mechanism of recruitment remains to be defined. Here, we report a stepwise recruitment of yeast NuA4 to DSBs first by a DNA damage-induced phosphorylation-dependent interaction with the Xrs2 subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex bound to DNA ends. This is followed by a DNA resection-dependent spreading of NuA4 on each side of the break along with the ssDNA-binding replication protein A (RPA). Finally, we show that NuA4 can acetylate RPA and regulate the dynamics of its binding to DNA, hence targeting locally both histone and nonhistone proteins for lysine acetylation to coordinate repair.

PMID: 30224481 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Overcoming natural replication barriers: differential helicase requirements.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Feb;40(3):1091-105

Authors: Anand RP, Shah KA, Niu H, Sung P, Mirkin SM, Freudenreich CH

DNA sequences that form secondary structures or bind protein complexes are known barriers to replication and potential inducers of genome instability. In order to determine which helicases facilitate DNA replication across these barriers, we analyzed fork progression through them in wild-type and mutant yeast cells, using 2-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis of the replication intermediates. We show that the Srs2 protein facilitates replication of hairpin-forming CGG/CCG repeats and prevents chromosome fragility at the repeat, whereas it does not affect replication of G-quadruplex forming sequences or a protein-bound repeat. Srs2 helicase activity is required for hairpin unwinding and fork progression. Also, the PCNA binding domain of Srs2 is required for its in vivo role of replication through hairpins. In contrast, the absence of Sgs1 or Pif1 helicases did not inhibit replication through structural barriers, though Pif1 did facilitate replication of a telomeric protein barrier. Interestingly, replication through a protein barrier but not a DNA structure barrier was modulated by nucleotide pool levels, illuminating a different mechanism by which cells can regulate fork progression through protein-mediated stall sites. Our analyses reveal fundamental differences in the replication of DNA structural versus protein barriers, with Srs2 helicase activity exclusively required for fork progression through hairpin structures.

PMID: 21984413 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Nucleosome-like, Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-Histone Octamer Complexes and the Implication for DNA Double Strand Break Repair.

J Biol Chem. 2017 Mar 31;292(13):5271-5281

Authors: Adkins NL, Swygert SG, Kaur P, Niu H, Grigoryev SA, Sung P, Wang H, Peterson CL

Repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is key for maintenance of genome integrity. When DSBs are repaired by homologous recombination, DNA ends can undergo extensive processing, producing long stretches of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). In vivo, DSB processing occurs in the context of chromatin, and studies indicate that histones may remain associated with processed DSBs. Here we demonstrate that histones are not evicted from ssDNA after in vitro chromatin resection. In addition, we reconstitute histone-ssDNA complexes (termed ssNucs) with ssDNA and recombinant histones and analyze these particles by a combination of native gel electrophoresis, sedimentation velocity, electron microscopy, and a recently developed electrostatic force microscopy technique, DREEM (dual-resonance frequency-enhanced electrostatic force microscopy). The reconstituted ssNucs are homogenous and relatively stable, and DREEM reveals ssDNA wrapping around histones. We also find that histone octamers are easily transferred in trans from ssNucs to either double-stranded DNA or ssDNA. Furthermore, the Fun30 remodeling enzyme, which has been implicated in DNA repair, binds ssNucs preferentially over nucleosomes, and ssNucs are effective at activating Fun30 ATPase activity. Our results indicate that ssNucs may be a hallmark of processes that generate ssDNA, and that posttranslational modification of ssNucs may generate novel signaling platforms involved in genome stability.

PMID: 28202543 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Nucleosome dynamics regulates DNA processing.

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013 Jul;20(7):836-42

Authors: Adkins NL, Niu H, Sung P, Peterson CL

The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. The first step in DSB repair by homologous recombination is the processing of the ends by one of two resection pathways, executed by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Exo1 and Sgs1-Dna2 machineries. Here we report in vitro and in vivo studies that characterize the impact of chromatin on each resection pathway. We find that efficient resection by the Sgs1-Dna2-dependent machinery requires a nucleosome-free gap adjacent to the DSB. Resection by Exo1 is blocked by nucleosomes, and processing activity can be partially restored by removal of the H2A-H2B dimers. Our study also supports a role for the dynamic incorporation of the H2A.Z histone variant in Exo1 processing, and it further suggests that the two resection pathways require distinct chromatin remodeling events to navigate chromatin structure.

PMID: 23728291 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Nov 16;43(20):9817-34

Authors: Parplys AC, Zhao W, Sharma N, Groesser T, Liang F, Maranon DG, Leung SG, Grundt K, Dray E, Idate R, Østvold AC, Schild D, Sung P, Wiese C

NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintaining wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression.

PMID: 26323318 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Novel attributes of Hed1 affect dynamics and activity of the Rad51 presynaptic filament during meiotic recombination.

J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 06;287(2):1566-75

Authors: Busygina V, Saro D, Williams G, Leung WK, Say AF, Sehorn MG, Sung P, Tsubouchi H

During meiosis, recombination events that occur between homologous chromosomes help prepare the chromosome pairs for proper disjunction in meiosis I. The concurrent action of the Rad51 and Dmc1 recombinases is necessary for an interhomolog bias. Notably, the activity of Rad51 is tightly controlled, so as to minimize the use of the sister chromatid as recombination partner. We demonstrated recently that Hed1, a meiosis-specific protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, restricts the access of the recombinase accessory factor Rad54 to presynaptic filaments of Rad51. We now show that Hed1 undergoes self-association in a Rad51-dependent manner and binds ssDNA. We also find a strong stabilizing effect of Hed1 on the Rad51 presynaptic filament. Biochemical and genetic analyses of mutants indicate that these Hed1 attributes are germane for its recombination regulatory and Rad51 presynaptic filament stabilization functions. Our results shed light on the mechanism of action of Hed1 in meiotic recombination control.

PMID: 22115747 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Non-catalytic Roles for XPG with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Homologous Recombination and Genome Stability.

Mol Cell. 2016 Feb 18;61(4):535-546

Authors: Trego KS, Groesser T, Davalos AR, Parplys AC, Zhao W, Nelson MR, Hlaing A, Shih B, Rydberg B, Pluth JM, Tsai MS, Hoeijmakers JHJ, Sung P, Wiese C, Campisi J, Cooper PK

XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair, and incision-defective XPG mutations cause the skin cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum. Truncating mutations instead cause the neurodevelopmental progeroid disorder Cockayne syndrome, but little is known about how XPG loss results in this devastating disease. We identify XPG as a partner of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in maintaining genomic stability through homologous recombination (HRR). XPG depletion causes DNA double-strand breaks, chromosomal abnormalities, cell-cycle delays, defective HRR, inability to overcome replication fork stalling, and replication stress. XPG directly interacts with BRCA2, RAD51, and PALB2, and XPG depletion reduces their chromatin binding and subsequent RAD51 foci formation. Upstream in HRR, XPG interacts directly with BRCA1. Its depletion causes BRCA1 hyper-phosphorylation and persistent chromatin binding. These unexpected findings establish XPG as an HRR protein with important roles in genome stability and suggest how XPG defects produce severe clinical consequences including cancer and accelerated aging.

PMID: 26833090 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Multifaceted role of the Topo IIIα-RMI1-RMI2 complex and DNA2 in the BLM-dependent pathway of DNA break end resection.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42(17):11083-91

Authors: Daley JM, Chiba T, Xue X, Niu H, Sung P

BLM, a RecQ family DNA helicase mutated in Bloom’s Syndrome, participates in homologous recombination at two stages: 5′ DNA end resection and double Holliday junction dissolution. BLM exists in a complex with Topo IIIα, RMI1 and RMI2. Herein, we address the role of Topo IIIα and RMI1-RMI2 in resection using a reconstituted system with purified human proteins. We show that Topo IIIα stimulates DNA unwinding by BLM in a manner that is potentiated by RMI1-RMI2, and that the processivity of resection is reliant on the Topo IIIα-RMI1-RMI2 complex. Topo IIIα localizes to the ends of double-strand breaks, thus implicating it in the recruitment of resection factors. While the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA plays a major role in imposing the 5′ to 3′ polarity of resection, Topo IIIα also makes a contribution in this regard. Moreover, we show that DNA2 stimulates the helicase activity of BLM. Our results thus uncover a multifaceted role of the Topo IIIα-RMI1-RMI2 ensemble and of DNA2 in the DNA resection reaction.

PMID: 25200081 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Molecular mechanism of resolving trinucleotide repeat hairpin by helicases.

Structure. 2015 Jun 02;23(6):1018-27

Authors: Qiu Y, Niu H, Vukovic L, Sung P, Myong S

Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion is the root cause for many known congenital neurological and muscular disorders in human including Huntington’s disease, fragile X syndrome, and Friedreich’s ataxia. The stable secondary hairpin structures formed by TNR may trigger fork stalling during replication, causing DNA polymerase slippage and TNR expansion. Srs2 and Sgs1 are two helicases in yeast that resolve TNR hairpins during DNA replication and prevent genome expansion. Using single-molecule fluorescence, we investigated the unwinding mechanism by which Srs2 and Sgs1 resolves TNR hairpin and compared it with unwinding of duplex DNA. While Sgs1 unwinds both structures indiscriminately, Srs2 displays repetitive unfolding of TNR hairpin without fully unwinding it. Such activity of Srs2 shows dependence on the folding strength and the total length of TNR hairpin. Our results reveal a disparate molecular mechanism of Srs2 and Sgs1 that may contribute differently to efficient resolving of the TNR hairpin.

PMID: 26004439 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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MiR223-3p promotes synthetic lethality in BRCA1-deficient cancers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Aug 08;:

Authors: Srinivasan G, Williamson EA, Kong K, Jaiswal AS, Huang G, Kim HS, Schärer O, Zhao W, Burma S, Sung P, Hromas R

Defects in DNA repair give rise to genomic instability, leading to neoplasia. Cancer cells defective in one DNA repair pathway can become reliant on remaining repair pathways for survival and proliferation. This attribute of cancer cells can be exploited therapeutically, by inhibiting the remaining repair pathway, a process termed synthetic lethality. This process underlies the mechanism of the Poly-ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors in clinical use, which target BRCA1 deficient cancers, which is indispensable for homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. HR is the major repair pathway for stressed replication forks, but when BRCA1 is deficient, stressed forks are repaired by back-up pathways such as alternative nonhomologous end-joining (aNHEJ). Unlike HR, aNHEJ is nonconservative, and can mediate chromosomal translocations. In this study we have found that miR223-3p decreases expression of PARP1, CtIP, and Pso4, each of which are aNHEJ components. In most cells, high levels of microRNA (miR) 223-3p repress aNHEJ, decreasing the risk of chromosomal translocations. Deletion of the miR223 locus in mice increases PARP1 levels in hematopoietic cells and enhances their risk of unprovoked chromosomal translocations. We also discovered that cancer cells deficient in BRCA1 or its obligate partner BRCA1-Associated Protein-1 (BAP1) routinely repress miR223-3p to permit repair of stressed replication forks via aNHEJ. Reconstituting the expression of miR223-3p in BRCA1- and BAP1-deficient cancer cells results in reduced repair of stressed replication forks and synthetic lethality. Thus, miR223-3p is a negative regulator of the aNHEJ DNA repair and represents a therapeutic pathway for BRCA1- or BAP1-deficient cancers.

PMID: 31395736 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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