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Spontaneous self-segregation of Rad51 and Dmc1 DNA recombinases within mixed recombinase filaments.

J Biol Chem. 2018 03 16;293(11):4191-4200

Authors: Crickard JB, Kaniecki K, Kwon Y, Sung P, Greene EC

During meiosis, the two DNA recombinases Rad51 and Dmc1 form specialized presynaptic filaments that are adapted for performing recombination between homologous chromosomes. There is currently a limited understanding of how these two recombinases are organized within the meiotic presynaptic filament. Here, we used single molecule imaging to examine the properties of presynaptic complexes composed of both Rad51 and Dmc1. We demonstrate that Rad51 and Dmc1 have an intrinsic ability to self-segregate, even in the absence of any other recombination accessory proteins. Moreover, we found that the presence of Dmc1 stabilizes the adjacent Rad51 filaments, suggesting that cross-talk between these two recombinases may affect their biochemical properties. Based upon these findings, we describe a model for the organization of Rad51 and Dmc1 within the meiotic presynaptic complex, which is also consistent with in vivo observations, genetic findings, and biochemical expectations. This model argues against the existence of extensively intermixed filaments, and we propose that Rad51 and Dmc1 have intrinsic capacities to form spatially distinct filaments, suggesting that additional recombination cofactors are not required to segregate the Rad51 and Dmc1 filaments.

PMID: 29382724 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Solution structure and DNA-binding properties of the winged helix domain of the meiotic recombination HOP2 protein.

J Biol Chem. 2014 May 23;289(21):14682-91

Authors: Moktan H, Guiraldelli MF, Eyster CA, Zhao W, Lee CY, Mather T, Camerini-Otero RD, Sung P, Zhou DH, Pezza RJ

The HOP2 protein is required for efficient double-strand break repair which ensures the proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes and normal meiotic progression. We previously showed that in vitro HOP2 shows two distinctive activities: when it is incorporated into a HOP2-MND1 heterodimer, it stimulates DMC1 and RAD51 recombination activities, and the purified HOP2 alone is proficient in promoting strand invasion. The structural and biochemical basis of HOP2 action in recombination are poorly understood; therefore, they are the focus of this work. Herein, we present the solution structure of the amino-terminal portion of mouse HOP2, which contains a typical winged helix DNA-binding domain. Together with NMR spectral changes in the presence of double-stranded DNA, protein docking on DNA, and mutation analysis to identify the amino acids involved in DNA coordination, our results on the three-dimensional structure of HOP2 provide key information on the fundamental structural and biochemical requirements directing the interaction of HOP2 with DNA. These results, in combination with mutational experiments showing the role of a coiled-coil structural feature involved in HOP2 self-association, allow us to explain important aspects of the function of HOP2 in recombination.

PMID: 24711446 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Smc5/6 Mediated Sumoylation of the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 Complex Promotes Removal of Recombination Intermediates.

Cell Rep. 2016 07 12;16(2):368-378

Authors: Bonner JN, Choi K, Xue X, Torres NP, Szakal B, Wei L, Wan B, Arter M, Matos J, Sung P, Brown GW, Branzei D, Zhao X

Timely removal of DNA recombination intermediates is critical for genome stability. The DNA helicase-topoisomerase complex, Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 (STR), is the major pathway for processing these intermediates to generate conservative products. However, the mechanisms that promote STR-mediated functions remain to be defined. Here we show that Sgs1 binds to poly-SUMO chains and associates with the Smc5/6 SUMO E3 complex in yeast. Moreover, these interactions contribute to the sumoylation of Sgs1, Top3, and Rmi1 upon the generation of recombination structures. We show that reduced STR sumoylation leads to accumulation of recombination structures, and impaired growth in conditions when these structures arise frequently, highlighting the importance of STR sumoylation. Mechanistically, sumoylation promotes STR inter-subunit interactions and accumulation at DNA repair centers. These findings expand the roles of sumoylation and Smc5/6 in genome maintenance by demonstrating that they foster STR functions in the removal of recombination intermediates.

PMID: 27373152 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Significance of ligand interactions involving Hop2-Mnd1 and the RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases in homologous DNA repair and XX ovarian dysgenesis.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Apr 30;43(8):4055-66

Authors: Zhao W, Sung P

The evolutionarily conserved Hop2-Mnd1 complex is a key cofactor for the meiosis-specific recombinase Dmc1. However, emerging evidence has revealed that Hop2-Mnd1 is expressed in somatic tissues, primary human fibroblasts and cell lines, and that it functions in conjunction with the Rad51 recombinase to repair damaged telomeres via the alternate lengthening of telomeres mechanism. Here, we reveal how distinct DNA-binding activities of Hop2-Mnd1 mediate the stabilization of the RAD51-ssDNA presynaptic filament or stimulate the homologous DNA pairing reaction. We have also endeavored to define the interface that governs the assembly of the higher order complex of Hop2-Mnd1 with RAD51. Unexpectedly, we find that ATP enhances the interaction between Hop2-Mnd1 and RAD51, and that both Hop2 and Mnd1 are involved in RAD51 interaction via their C-terminal regions. Importantly, mutations introduced into these Hop2 and Mnd1 domains, including the HOP2 p.del201Glu mutation present in a patient of XX ovarian dysgenesis, diminish the association and functional synergy of Hop2-Mnd1 with both RAD51 and DMC1. Our findings help delineate the intricate manner in which Hop2-Mnd1 engages and functions with RAD51 and DMC1 in mammalian cells and speak to the possible cause of XX ovarian dysgenesis.

PMID: 25820426 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Sequence imperfections and base triplet recognition by the Rad51/RecA family of recombinases.

J Biol Chem. 2017 06 30;292(26):11125-11135

Authors: Lee JY, Steinfeld JB, Qi Z, Kwon Y, Sung P, Greene EC

Homologous recombination plays key roles in double-strand break repair, rescue, and repair of stalled replication forks and meiosis. The broadly conserved Rad51/RecA family of recombinases catalyzes the DNA strand invasion reaction that takes place during homologous recombination. We have established single-stranded (ss)DNA curtain assays for measuring individual base triplet steps during the early stages of strand invasion. Here, we examined how base triplet stepping by RecA, Rad51, and Dmc1 is affected by DNA sequence imperfections, such as single and multiple mismatches, abasic sites, and single nucleotide insertions. Our work reveals features of base triplet stepping that are conserved among these three phylogenetic lineages of the Rad51/RecA family and also reveals lineage-specific behaviors reflecting properties that are unique to each recombinase. These findings suggest that Dmc1 is tolerant of single mismatches, multiple mismatches, and even abasic sites, whereas RecA and Rad51 are not. Interestingly, the presence of single nucleotide insertion abolishes recognition of an adjacent base triplet by all three recombinases. On the basis of these findings, we describe models for how sequence imperfections may affect base triplet recognition by Rad51/RecA family members, and we discuss how these models and our results may relate to the different biological roles of RecA, Rad51, and Dmc1.

PMID: 28476890 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Selective modulation of the functions of a conserved DNA motor by a histone fold complex.

Genes Dev. 2015 May 15;29(10):1000-5

Authors: Xue X, Choi K, Bonner JN, Szakal B, Chen YH, Papusha A, Saro D, Niu H, Ira G, Branzei D, Sung P, Zhao X

Budding yeast Mph1 helicase and its orthologs drive multiple DNA transactions. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate these motor proteins is central to understanding genome maintenance processes. Here, we show that the conserved histone fold MHF complex promotes Mph1-mediated repair of damaged replication forks but does not influence the outcome of DNA double-strand break repair. Mechanistically, scMHF relieves the inhibition imposed by the structural maintenance of chromosome protein Smc5 on Mph1 activities relevant to replication-associated repair through binding to Mph1 but not DNA. Thus, scMHF is a function-specific enhancer of Mph1 that enables flexible response to different genome repair situations.

PMID: 25956905 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Roles of DNA helicases in the mediation and regulation of homologous recombination.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;767:185-202

Authors: Daley JM, Niu H, Sung P

Homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that eliminates DNA double-strand breaks from chromosomes, repairs injured DNA replication forks, and helps orchestrate meiotic chromosome segregation. Recent studies have shown that DNA helicases play multifaceted roles in HR mediation and regulation. In particular, the S. cerevisiae Sgs1 helicase and its human ortholog BLM helicase are involved in not only the resection of the primary lesion to generate single-stranded DNA to prompt the assembly of the HR machinery, but they also function in somatic cells to suppress the formation of chromosome arm crossovers during HR. On the other hand, the S. cerevisiae Mph1 and Srs2 helicases, and their respective functional equivalents in other eukaryotes, suppress spurious HR events and favor the formation of noncrossovers via distinct mechanisms. Thus, the functional integrity of the HR process and HR outcomes are dependent upon these helicase enzymes. Since mutations in some of these helicases lead to cancer predisposition in humans and mice, studies on them have clear relevance to human health and disease.

PMID: 23161012 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Roles of DNA helicases and Exo1 in the avoidance of mutations induced by Top1-mediated cleavage at ribonucleotides in DNA.

Cell Cycle. 2016;15(3):331-6

Authors: Niu H, Potenski CJ, Epshtein A, Sung P, Klein HL

The replicative DNA polymerases insert ribonucleotides into DNA at a frequency of approximately 1/6500 nucleotides replicated. The rNMP residues make the DNA backbone more susceptible to hydrolysis and can also distort the helix, impeding the transcription and replication machineries. rNMPs in DNA are efficiently removed by RNaseH2 by a process called ribonucleotides excision repair (RER). In the absence of functional RNaseH2, rNMPs are subject to cleavage by Topoisomerase I, followed by further processing to result in deletion mutations due to slippage in simple DNA repeats. The topoisomerase I-mediated cleavage at rNMPs results in DNA ends that cannot be ligated by DNA ligase I, a 5’OH end and a 2′-3′ cyclic phosphate end. In the budding yeast, the mutation level in RNaseH2 deficient cells is kept low via the action of the Srs2 helicase and the Exo1 nuclease, which collaborate to process the Top1-induced nick with subsequent non-mutagenic gap filling. We have surveyed other helicases and nucleases for a possible role in reducing mutagenesis at Top1 nicks at rNMPs and have uncovered a novel role for the RecQ family helicase Sgs1 in this process.

PMID: 26716562 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Role of the Pif1-PCNA Complex in Pol δ-Dependent Strand Displacement DNA Synthesis and Break-Induced Replication.

Cell Rep. 2017 Nov 14;21(7):1707-1714

Authors: Buzovetsky O, Kwon Y, Pham NT, Kim C, Ira G, Sung P, Xiong Y

The S. cerevisiae Pif1 helicase functions with DNA polymerase (Pol) δ in DNA synthesis during break-induced replication (BIR), a conserved pathway responsible for replication fork repair and telomere recombination. Pif1 interacts with the DNA polymerase processivity clamp PCNA, but the functional significance of the Pif1-PCNA complex remains to be elucidated. Here, we solve the crystal structure of PCNA in complex with a non-canonical PCNA-interacting motif in Pif1. The structure guides the construction of a Pif1 mutant that is deficient in PCNA interaction. This mutation impairs the ability of Pif1 to enhance DNA strand displacement synthesis by Pol δ in vitro and also the efficiency of BIR in cells. These results provide insights into the role of the Pif1-PCNA-Pol δ ensemble during DNA break repair by homologous recombination.

PMID: 29141206 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Role of Saw1 in Rad1/Rad10 complex assembly at recombination intermediates in budding yeast.

EMBO J. 2013 Feb 06;32(3):461-72

Authors: Li F, Dong J, Eichmiller R, Holland C, Minca E, Prakash R, Sung P, Yong Shim E, Surtees JA, Eun Lee S

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1/Rad10 complex is a multifunctional, structure-specific endonuclease that processes UV-induced DNA lesions, recombination intermediates, and inter-strand DNA crosslinks. However, we do not know how Rad1/Rad10 recognizes these structurally distinct target molecules or how it is incorporated into the protein complexes capable of incising divergent substrates. Here, we have determined the order and hierarchy of assembly of the Rad1/Rad10 complex, Saw1, Slx4, and Msh2/Msh3 complex at a 3′ tailed recombination intermediate. We found that Saw1 is a structure-specific DNA binding protein with high affinity for splayed arm and 3′-flap DNAs. By physical interaction, Saw1 facilitates targeting of Rad1 at 3′ tailed substrates in vivo and in vitro, and enhances 3′ tail cleavage by Rad1/Rad10 in a purified system in vitro. Our results allow us to formulate a model of Rad1/Rad10/Saw1 nuclease complex assembly and 3′ tail removal in recombination.

PMID: 23299942 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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