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RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) interacts with the meiotic recombinase DMC1 through a conserved motif.

J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 28;286(43):37328-34

Authors: Dunlop MH, Dray E, Zhao W, Tsai MS, Wiese C, Schild D, Sung P

Homologous recombination (HR) reactions mediated by the RAD51 recombinase are essential for DNA and replication fork repair, genome stability, and tumor suppression. RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is an important HR factor that associates with and stimulates the recombinase activity of RAD51. We have recently shown that RAD51AP1 also partners with the meiotic recombinase DMC1, displaying isoform-specific interactions with DMC1. Here, we have characterized the DMC1 interaction site in RAD51AP1 by a series of truncations and point mutations to uncover a highly conserved WVPP motif critical for DMC1 interaction but dispensable for RAD51 association. This RAD51AP1 motif is reminiscent of the FVPP motif in the tumor suppressor protein BRCA2 that mediates DMC1 interaction. These results further implicate RAD51AP1 in meiotic HR via RAD51 and DMC1.

PMID: 21903585 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Rad51 presynaptic filament stabilization function of the mouse Swi5-Sfr1 heterodimeric complex.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Aug;40(14):6558-69

Authors: Tsai SP, Su GC, Lin SW, Chung CI, Xue X, Dunlop MH, Akamatsu Y, Jasin M, Sung P, Chi P

Homologous recombination (HR) represents a major error-free pathway to eliminate pre-carcinogenic chromosomal lesions. The DNA strand invasion reaction in HR is mediated by a helical filament of the Rad51 recombinase assembled on single-stranded DNA that is derived from the nucleolytic processing of the primary lesion. Recent studies have found that the human and mouse Swi5 and Sfr1 proteins form a complex that influences Rad51-mediated HR in cells. Here, we provide biophysical evidence that the mouse Swi5-Sfr1 complex has a 1:1 stoichiometry. Importantly, the Swi5-Sfr1 complex, but neither Swi5 nor Sfr1 alone, physically interacts with Rad51 and stimulates Rad51-mediated homologous DNA pairing. This stimulatory effect stems from the stabilization of the Rad51-ssDNA presynaptic filament. Moreover, we provide evidence that the RSfp (rodent Sfr1 proline rich) motif in Sfr1 serves as a negative regulatory element. These results thus reveal an evolutionarily conserved function in the Swi5-Sfr1 complex and furnish valuable information as to the regulatory role of the RSfp motif that is specific to the mammalian Sfr1 orthologs.

PMID: 22492707 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Rad5-dependent DNA repair functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae FANCM protein homolog Mph1.

J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 03;287(32):26563-75

Authors: Daee DL, Ferrari E, Longerich S, Zheng XF, Xue X, Branzei D, Sung P, Myung K

Interstrand cross-links (ICLs) covalently link complementary DNA strands, block DNA replication, and transcription and must be removed to allow cell survival. Several pathways, including the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, can faithfully repair ICLs and maintain genomic integrity; however, the precise mechanisms of most ICL repair processes remain enigmatic. In this study we genetically characterized a conserved yeast ICL repair pathway composed of the yeast homologs (Mph1, Chl1, Mhf1, Mhf2) of four FA proteins (FANCM, FANCJ, MHF1, MHF2). This pathway is epistatic with Rad5-mediated DNA damage bypass and distinct from the ICL repair pathways mediated by Rad18 and Pso2. In addition, consistent with the FANCM role in stabilizing ICL-stalled replication forks, we present evidence that Mph1 prevents ICL-stalled replication forks from collapsing into double-strand breaks. This unique repair function of Mph1 is specific for ICL damage and does not extend to other types of damage. These studies reveal the functional conservation of the FA pathway and validate the yeast model for future studies to further elucidate the mechanism of the FA pathway.

PMID: 22696213 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Protein dynamics of human RPA and RAD51 on ssDNA during assembly and disassembly of the RAD51 filament.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 01 25;45(2):749-761

Authors: Ma CJ, Gibb B, Kwon Y, Sung P, Greene EC

Homologous recombination (HR) is a crucial pathway for double-stranded DNA break (DSB) repair. During the early stages of HR, the newly generated DSB ends are processed to yield long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhangs, which are quickly bound by replication protein A (RPA). RPA is then replaced by the DNA recombinase Rad51, which forms extended helical filaments on the ssDNA. The resulting nucleoprotein filament, known as the presynaptic complex, is responsible for pairing the ssDNA with homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), which serves as the template to guide DSB repair. Here, we use single-molecule imaging to visualize the interplay between human RPA (hRPA) and human RAD51 during presynaptic complex assembly and disassembly. We demonstrate that ssDNA-bound hRPA can undergo facilitated exchange, enabling hRPA to undergo rapid exchange between free and ssDNA-bound states only when free hRPA is present in solution. Our results also indicate that the presence of free hRPA inhibits RAD51 filament nucleation, but has a lesser impact upon filament elongation. This finding suggests that hRPA exerts important regulatory influence over RAD51 and may in turn affect the properties of the assembled RAD51 filament. These experiments provide an important basis for further investigations into the regulation of human presynaptic complex assembly.

PMID: 27903895 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Protein dynamics during presynaptic-complex assembly on individual single-stranded DNA molecules.

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014 Oct;21(10):893-900

Authors: Gibb B, Ye LF, Kwon Y, Niu H, Sung P, Greene EC

Homologous recombination is a conserved pathway for repairing double-stranded breaks, which are processed to yield single-stranded DNA overhangs that serve as platforms for presynaptic-complex assembly. Here we use single-molecule imaging to reveal the interplay between Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPA, Rad52 and Rad51 during presynaptic-complex assembly. We show that Rad52 binds RPA-ssDNA and suppresses RPA turnover, highlighting an unanticipated regulatory influence on protein dynamics. Rad51 binding extends the ssDNA, and Rad52-RPA clusters remain interspersed along the presynaptic complex. These clusters promote additional binding of RPA and Rad52. Our work illustrates the spatial and temporal progression of the association of RPA and Rad52 with the presynaptic complex and reveals a new RPA-Rad52-Rad51-ssDNA intermediate, with implications for how the activities of Rad52 and RPA are coordinated with Rad51 during the later stages of recombination.

PMID: 25195049 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Promotion of RAD51-Mediated Homologous DNA Pairing by the RAD51AP1-UAF1 Complex.

Cell Rep. 2016 06 07;15(10):2118-2126

Authors: Liang F, Longerich S, Miller AS, Tang C, Buzovetsky O, Xiong Y, Maranon DG, Wiese C, Kupfer GM, Sung P

The UAF1-USP1 complex deubiquitinates FANCD2 during execution of the Fanconi anemia DNA damage response pathway. As such, UAF1 depletion results in persistent FANCD2 ubiquitination and DNA damage hypersensitivity. UAF1-deficient cells are also impaired for DNA repair by homologous recombination. Herein, we show that UAF1 binds DNA and forms a dimeric complex with RAD51AP1, an accessory factor of the RAD51 recombinase, and a trimeric complex with RAD51 through RAD51AP1. Two small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-like domains in UAF1 and a SUMO-interacting motif in RAD51AP1 mediate complex formation. Importantly, UAF1 enhances RAD51-mediated homologous DNA pairing in a manner that is dependent on complex formation with RAD51AP1 but independent of USP1. Mechanistically, RAD51AP1-UAF1 co-operates with RAD51 to assemble the synaptic complex, a critical nucleoprotein intermediate in homologous recombination, and cellular studies reveal the biological significance of the RAD51AP1-UAF1 protein complex. Our findings provide insights into an apparently USP1-independent role of UAF1 in genome maintenance.

PMID: 27239033 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Promotion of presynaptic filament assembly by the ensemble of S. cerevisiae Rad51 paralogues with Rad52.

Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 28;6:7834

Authors: Gaines WA, Godin SK, Kabbinavar FF, Rao T, VanDemark AP, Sung P, Bernstein KA

The conserved budding yeast Rad51 paralogues, including Rad55, Rad57, Csm2 and Psy3 are indispensable for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated chromosome damage repair. Rad55 and Rad57 are associated in a heterodimer, while Csm2 and Psy3 form the Shu complex with Shu1 and Shu2. Here we show that Rad55 bridges an interaction between Csm2 with Rad51 and Rad52 and, using a fully reconstituted system, demonstrate that the Shu complex synergizes with Rad55-Rad57 and Rad52 to promote nucleation of Rad51 on single-stranded DNA pre-occupied by replication protein A (RPA). The csm2-F46A allele is unable to interact with Rad55, ablating the ability of the Shu complex to enhance Rad51 presynaptic filament assembly in vitro and impairing HR in vivo. Our results reveal that Rad55-Rad57, the Shu complex and Rad52 act as a functional ensemble to promote Rad51-filament assembly, which has important implications for understanding the role of the human RAD51 paralogues in Fanconi anaemia and cancer predisposition.

PMID: 26215801 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Promotion of BRCA2-Dependent Homologous Recombination by DSS1 via RPA Targeting and DNA Mimicry.

Mol Cell. 2015 Jul 16;59(2):176-87

Authors: Zhao W, Vaithiyalingam S, San Filippo J, Maranon DG, Jimenez-Sainz J, Fontenay GV, Kwon Y, Leung SG, Lu L, Jensen RB, Chazin WJ, Wiese C, Sung P

The tumor suppressor BRCA2 is thought to facilitate the handoff of ssDNA from replication protein A (RPA) to the RAD51 recombinase during DNA break and replication fork repair by homologous recombination. However, we find that RPA-RAD51 exchange requires the BRCA2 partner DSS1. Biochemical, structural, and in vivo analyses reveal that DSS1 allows the BRCA2-DSS1 complex to physically and functionally interact with RPA. Mechanistically, DSS1 acts as a DNA mimic to attenuate the affinity of RPA for ssDNA. A mutation in the solvent-exposed acidic domain of DSS1 compromises the efficacy of RPA-RAD51 exchange. Thus, by targeting RPA and mimicking DNA, DSS1 functions with BRCA2 in a two-component homologous recombination mediator complex in genome maintenance and tumor suppression. Our findings may provide a paradigm for understanding the roles of DSS1 in other biological processes.

PMID: 26145171 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Plasticity of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2-Sae2 nuclease ensemble in the processing of DNA-bound obstacles.

Genes Dev. 2017 12 01;31(23-24):2331-2336

Authors: Wang W, Daley JM, Kwon Y, Krasner DS, Sung P

The budding yeast Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex and Sae2 function together in DNA end resection during homologous recombination. Here we show that the Ku complex shields DNA ends from exonucleolytic digestion but facilitates endonucleolytic scission by MRX with a dependence on ATP and Sae2. The incision site is enlarged into a DNA gap via the exonuclease activity of MRX, which is stimulated by Sae2 without ATP being present. RPA renders a partially resected or palindromic DNA structure susceptible to MRX-Sae2, and internal protein blocks also trigger DNA cleavage. We present models for how MRX-Sae2 creates entry sites for the long-range resection machinery.

PMID: 29321177 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Pif1 helicase and Polδ promote recombination-coupled DNA synthesis via bubble migration.

Nature. 2013 Oct 17;502(7471):393-6

Authors: Wilson MA, Kwon Y, Xu Y, Chung WH, Chi P, Niu H, Mayle R, Chen X, Malkova A, Sung P, Ira G

During DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR), DNA synthesis copies information from a template DNA molecule. Multiple DNA polymerases have been implicated in repair-specific DNA synthesis, but it has remained unclear whether a DNA helicase is involved in this reaction. A good candidate DNA helicase is Pif1, an evolutionarily conserved helicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae important for break-induced replication (BIR) as well as HR-dependent telomere maintenance in the absence of telomerase found in 10-15% of all cancers. Pif1 has a role in DNA synthesis across hard-to-replicate sites and in lagging-strand synthesis with polymerase δ (Polδ). Here we provide evidence that Pif1 stimulates DNA synthesis during BIR and crossover recombination. The initial steps of BIR occur normally in Pif1-deficient cells, but Polδ recruitment and DNA synthesis are decreased, resulting in premature resolution of DNA intermediates into half-crossovers. Purified Pif1 protein strongly stimulates Polδ-mediated DNA synthesis from a D-loop made by the Rad51 recombinase. Notably, Pif1 liberates the newly synthesized strand to prevent the accumulation of topological constraint and to facilitate extensive DNA synthesis via the establishment of a migrating D-loop structure. Our results uncover a novel function of Pif1 and provide insights into the mechanism of HR.

PMID: 24025768 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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